dendropy.model.parsimony: The Parsimony Model

Models, modeling and model-fitting of parsimony.

dendropy.model.parsimony.fitch_down_pass(postorder_nodes, state_sets_attr_name='state_sets', taxon_state_sets_map=None, weights=None, score_by_character_list=None)[source]

Returns the parsimony score given a list of nodes in postorder and associated states, using Fitch’s (1971) unordered parsimony algorithm.

Parameters:
  • postorder_nodes (iterable of/over Node objects) – An iterable of Node objects in in order of post-order traversal of the tree.
  • state_sets_attr_name (str) – Name of attribute on Node objects in which state set lists will stored/accessed. If None, then state sets will not be stored on the tree.
  • taxon_state_sets_map (dict[taxon] = state sets) – A dictionary that takes a taxon object as a key and returns a state set list as a value. This will be used to populate the state set of a node that has not yet had its state sets scored and recorded (typically, leaves of a tree that has not yet been processed).
  • weights (iterable) – A list of weights for each pattern.
  • score_by_character_list (None or list) – If not None, should be a reference to a list object. This list will be populated by the scores on a character-by-character basis.
Returns:

s (int) – Parismony score of tree.

Notes

Currently this requires a bifurcating tree (even at the root).

Examples

Assume that we have a tree, tree, and an associated data set, data:

import dendropy
from dendropy.model.parsimony import fitch_down_pass

taxa = dendropy.TaxonNamespace()
data = dendropy.StandardCharacterMatrix.get_from_path(
        "apternodus.chars.nexus",
        "nexus",
        taxon_namespace=taxa)
tree = dendropy.Tree.get_from_path(
        "apternodus.tre",
        "nexus",
        taxon_namespace=taxa)
taxon_state_sets_map = data.taxon_state_sets_map(gaps_as_missing=True)

The following will return the parsimony score of the tree with respect to the data in data:

score = fitch_down_pass(
        nodes=tree.postorder_node_iter(),
        taxon_state_sets_map=taxon_set_map)
print(score)

In the above, every Node object of tree will have an attribute added, “state_sets”, that stores the list of state sets from the analysis:

for nd in tree:
    print(nd.state_sets)

If you want to store the list of state sets in a different attribute, e.g., “analysis1_states”:

score = fitch_down_pass(
        nodes=tree.postorder_node_iter(),
        state_sets_attr_name="analysis1_states",
        taxon_state_sets_map=taxon_set_map)
print(score)
for nd in tree:
    print(nd.analysis1_states)

Or not to store these at all:

score = fitch_down_pass(
        nodes=tree.postorder_node_iter(),
        state_sets_attr_name=None,
        taxon_state_sets_map=taxon_set_map)
print(score)

Scoring custom data can be done by something like the following:

taxa = dendropy.TaxonNamespace()
taxon_state_sets_map = {}
t1 = taxa.require_taxon("A")
t2 = taxa.require_taxon("B")
t3 = taxa.require_taxon("C")
t4 = taxa.require_taxon("D")
t5 = taxa.require_taxon("E")
taxon_state_sets_map[t1] = [ set([0,1]),  set([0,1]),  set([0]),     set([0]) ]
taxon_state_sets_map[t2] = [ set([1]),    set([1]),    set([1]),     set([0]) ]
taxon_state_sets_map[t3] = [ set([0]),    set([1]),    set([1]),     set([0]) ]
taxon_state_sets_map[t4] = [ set([0]),    set([1]),    set([0,1]),   set([1]) ]
taxon_state_sets_map[t5] = [ set([1]),    set([0]),    set([1]),     set([1]) ]
tree = dendropy.Tree.get_from_string(
        "(A,(B,(C,(D,E))));", "newick",
        taxon_namespace=taxa)
score = fitch_down_pass(tree.postorder_node_iter(),
        taxon_state_sets_map=taxon_state_sets_map)
print(score)
dendropy.model.parsimony.fitch_up_pass(preorder_node_list, state_sets_attr_name='state_sets', taxon_state_sets_map=None)[source]

Finalizes the state set lists associated with each node using the “final phase” of Fitch’s (1971) unordered parsimony algorithm.

Parameters:
  • postorder_nodes (iterable of/over Node objects) – An iterable of Node objects in in order of post-order traversal of the tree.
  • state_sets_attr_name (str) – Name of attribute on Node objects in which state set lists will stored/accessed. If None, then state sets will not be stored on the tree.
  • taxon_state_sets_map (dict[taxon] = state sets) – A dictionary that takes a taxon object as a key and returns a state set list as a value. This will be used to populate the state set of a node that has not yet had its state sets scored and recorded (typically, leaves of a tree that has not yet been processed).

Notes

Currently this requires a bifurcating tree (even at the root).

Examples

taxa = dendropy.TaxonNamespace()
data = dendropy.StandardCharacterMatrix.get_from_path(
        "apternodus.chars.nexus",
        "nexus",
        taxon_namespace=taxa)
tree = dendropy.Tree.get_from_path(
        "apternodus.tre",
        "nexus",
        taxon_namespace=taxa)
taxon_state_sets_map = data.taxon_state_sets_map(gaps_as_missing=True)
score = fitch_down_pass(tree.postorder_node_iter(),
        taxon_state_sets_map=taxon_state_sets_map)
print(score)
fitch_up_pass(tree.preorder_node_iter())
for nd in tree:
    print(nd.state_sets)
dendropy.model.parsimony.parsimony_score(tree, chars, gaps_as_missing=True, weights=None, score_by_character_list=None)[source]

Calculates the score of a tree, tree, given some character data, chars, under the parsimony model using the Fitch algorithm.

Parameters:
  • tree (a Tree instance) – A Tree to be scored. Must reference the same TaxonNamespace as chars.
  • chars (a CharacterMatrix instance) – A CharacterMatrix-derived object with data to be scored. Must have the same TaxonNamespace as tree.
  • gap_as_missing (bool) – If True [default], then gaps will be treated as missing data. If False, then gaps will be treated as a new/additional state.
  • weights (iterable) – A list of weights for each pattern/column in the matrix.
  • score_by_character_list (None or list) – If not None, should be a reference to a list object. This list will be populated by the scores on a character-by-character basis.
Returns:

pscore (int) – The parsimony score of the tree given the data.

Examples

import dendropy
from dendropy.calculate import treescore

# establish common taxon namespace
taxon_namespace = dendropy.TaxonNamespace()

# Read data; if data is, e.g., "standard", use StandardCharacterMatrix.
# If unsure of data type, can do:
#       dataset = dendropy.DataSet.get(
#               path="path/to/file.nex",
#               schema="nexus",
#               taxon_namespace=tns,)
#       chars = dataset.char_matrices[0]
chars = dendropy.DnaCharacterMatrix.get(
        path="pythonidae.chars.nexus",
        schema="nexus",
        taxon_namespace=taxon_namespace)
tree = dendropy.Tree.get(
        path="pythonidae.mle.newick",
        schema="newick",
        taxon_namespace=taxon_namespace)

# We store the site-specific scores here
# This is optional; if we do not want to
# use the per-site scores, just pass in |None|
# for the ``score_by_character_list`` argument
# or do not specify this argument at all.
score_by_character_list = []

score = treescore.parsimony_score(
        tree,
        chars,
        gaps_as_missing=False,
        score_by_character_list=score_by_character_list)

# Print the results: the score
print("Score: {}".format(score))

# Print the results: the per-site scores
for idx, x in enumerate(score_by_character_list):
    print("{}: {}".format(idx+1, x))

Notes

If the same data is going to be used to score multiple trees or multiple times, it is probably better to generate the ‘taxon_state_sets_map’ once and call “fitch_down_pass” directly yourself, as this function generates a new map each time.